The beta 1,3/1,6 glucan used in research presented is from various sources in varying amounts; none involving or determined by this website.
Check the full research to see sources and amounts used in a specific study. No commercial products are presented herein and no claims are
made by this non-commercial website regarding any commercial products containing beta 1,3/1,6 glucan nor endorsement of the presented research studies.
Beta Glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall - Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan and Derivatives
Condition, Function and Disease Indexed References
"D" through "H"
Dectin-1:Immune Cell Receptor - Takano T, Motozono C, et al, "Dectin-1 Intracellular domain determines species-specific ligand spectrum by modulating receptor sensitivity," JBC Papers in Press, Manuscrit M117.800847, Aug 28, 2017. Quote: "Dectin-1 is a well-characterized CLR [c-type lectin receptor] that recognizes B-glucan. ...Our bodies are continuously exposed to and infected by various types of pathogens, most of which are recognized by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs)... An...additional member of emerging PRRs is the C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) [including Dectin-1] that sense pathogens or damaged tissues to trigger innate immune responses." Note: Dectin-1 has been shown to recognize species of several fungal genera, including Candida, Pnemocystis, Coccidioides, Penicillium and others. Recognition of these organisms triggers many protective pathways, such as fungal uptake by phagocytosis and killing via respiratory burst. Activation of dectin-1 also triggers expression of many protecting antifungal cytokines and chemokines.
Dectin-1 Immune Cell Receptor: Batbayar S, Lee DH, Kim HW, "Immunomodulation of Fungal B-Glucan in Host Defense Signaling by Dectin-1," Biomol Ther (Seoul), (5):433-45, PMID 24009832, Sep 2012. Quote: "Fungal and particulate B-glucans...can be taken up by the M cells of Peyer's patches, and interact with macrophages or dendritic cells and activate systemic immune responses to overcome the fungal infection. Dectin-1 receptor systems have been incorporated as the PRRs of B-glucans in the innate immune cells of higher animal systems, which function on the front line against fungal infection, and have been exploited in cancer treatments to enhance systemic immune function."
Dectin-1 Immune Cell Receptor: Drummond RA, Brown GD, "The Role of Dectin-1 in the host defense against fungal infections," Curr Opin in Microbiol, Vol 14,Issue 4, PP 392-399, PMID 21803640, Aug 2011. Quote: "Dectin-1 is an innate immune pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that, through its ability to bind B-glucans, is involved in the recognition of several pathogenic fungi. Dectin-1 can stimulate a variety of cellular responses ...including phagocytosis, cytokine production and the respiratory burst. ....Several advances in our understanding of Dectin-1 immunobiology have been made ....including demonstration of its ability to directly induce the development of adaptive immunity."
Dectin-1 Immune Cell Receptor: Goodridge H, Reyes C, Becker C, et al, "Activation of the innate immune reeptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a "phagocytic synapse." , Nature, 472(73(7344): 471-478: PMID 21525931, Apr 28, 2011. Quote: "...In this study we show that despite its ability to bind both soluble and particulate B-glucan polymers, Dectin-1 signaling is only activated by particulate B-glucans. ...The "phagocytic synapse" now provides a model mechanism by which innate immune receptors can distinguish direct microbial contact from detection of microbes at a distance, thereby initiating direct cellular anti-microbial responses only when they are required."
Dectin-1 Immune Cell Receptor: Reid DM, Gow NA, Brown GD, "Pattern recognition; recent insights from Dectin-1" , Curr Opin Immunol, (1):30-7, PMID 1922162, Feb 2009. Quote: " The beta-glucan receptor Dectin-1 ...can induce ...a variety of cellular responses.... Furthermore, a broader appreciation of the cellular responses mediated by this receptor and the effects of interactions with other receptors... have greatly furthered our understanding of innate immunity and how this drives the development of adaptive immunity, particularly Th17 responses. ...Recent studies have highlighted the importance of Dectin-1 in anti-fungal immunity, in both mice and humans, and have suggested a possible involvement of this receptor in the control of mycobacterial infections." Note: Th17 is a helper T-cell form..
Dectin-1 Immune Cell Receptor Brown GD, Gordon S, Herre J, Willment JA, "The role of Dectin-1 in antifungal immunity," Crit Rev Immunol, 24(3):193-203, PMID 15482254, 2004. Quote: "Dectin-1 [C-type lectin-like receptor] is expressed on phagocytic cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, and mediates both the internalization and cellular responses to beta-glucan... . Dectin-1 can recognize and respond to live fungal pathogens...having a key role in the innate responses to these pathogens."
Dectin-1 Immune Cell Receptor: Williment JA, Brown G, Gordon S, "Characterization of the human beta-glucan receptor and its alternatively spliced isoforms." J Biool Chem, 43818-23, PMID 11567029, Novem 2001.Quote: "Beta-1,3-d Glucans are biological response modifiers with potent effects on the immune system. The [Dectin-1] human beta-glucan receptor is a type II transmembrane receptor...widely expressed and functions as a pattern recognition receptor [PRR], recognizing a variety of beta-1,3- and/or beta-1-6 linked glucans as well as intact yeast."
Dectin-1 Immune Cell Receptor Dectin-1: Brown GD, Gordon S, "Immune Recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans." Nature, 413(6851):36-37, PMID 11544516, Sep 2001. Quote: " ...beta-1,3-d-glucans exert potent effects on the immune system - stimulating antitumour and antimicrobial activity - by binding to receptors on macrophages and other white blood cells and activating them. ...Hear we identify this unknown receptor as dectin-1..."
Decubitus Ulcers - [Bed sores] See also Wound Healing and Ulcers
Dermatitus-Atopic - Jesenak M, Urbancek S, et al, "B-Glucan-based cream in supportive treatment of mild-to-moderate atopic dermatitis," J Dermatolog Treat. 1-10, .PMID:26654776 December 2015 Quote: "Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases with serious impact on quality of life. B-Glucans are natural substances with potent immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity. Topical B-glucan application resulted in the significant improvement of both objective and subjective symptoms of Atopic dermatitis (AD). On the application side, significant decline in the number of days with Atopic dermatitis exacerbation and severity was observed."
Dermatitis: Castelli D, Colin L, Camel E, Ries G; “Pretreatment of skin with a Ginkgo biloba extract/sodium carboxymethyl-beta-1,3-glucan formulation appears to inhibit the elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis in man;” Contact Dermatitia, 38:3,123-6. Mar 1998. Quote: “…Ginkgo biloba / carboxymethyl-beta-1,3-glucan formulation can mitigate against allergic contact dermatitis.”
Diabetes - Inflammation - Suppression - Cao Y, Sun Y, Zou S, Duan B, Sun M, Xu X, "Yeast B-Glucan Suppresses the Chronic Inflammation and Improves the Microenvironment in Adipose Tissues of ob/ob Mice," J Agric Food Chem, 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04921, PMID: 29285925, Jan *, 2018. Quote: "...yeast B-1,3-glucan (BYG)...decreased pro-inflammatory modulators of TNF-α, IL6, IL-1B, CCL2 and SAA. These findings suggest that BYG has anti-inflammatory effect in diabetic mice, which can be used as a food component and/or therapeutic agent for diabetes."
Diabetes: Cao Y, Zou S, et al., "Orally Administered Baker's Yeast B-Glucan Promotes Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis in the Livers of Obesity and Diabetes Model Mice," J Agric Food Chem, 8;65(44):9665-9674, PMID: 29035040; Nov 2017, Quote: "BYG [Baker's yeast glucan] "It was found that [orally administered] BYG decreased the blood glucose and the hepatic glucose and lipid disorders. ...All these findings demonstrated that Baker's Yeast Glucan (BYG) is beneficial for regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic mice, and thus has potential applications in anti-diabetic foods or drugs."
Diabetes - Silva VO, Lobato RV, et al, "Effects of B-Glucans Ingestion on Alveolar Bone Loss, Intestinal Morphology, Systemic Inflammatory Profile, and Pancreatic B-Cell Function in Rats with Periodontitis and Diabetes," Nutrients, 14;9(9). PMID 28906456, Sept 14, 2017, Quote: "The study aimed to evaluate the effects of B-glucan ingestion (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on the plasmatic levels of tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a0 and interleukin-10 (IL-10), alveolar bone loss, and pancreatic B-cell function (HOMA_BF) in diabetic rats with periodontal disease (PD). ...B-glucan ingestion reduced the systemic inflammatory profile, prevented alveolar bone loss, and improved B-cell function in diabetic animals."
Diabetes: Andrade, et al, "Exercise and Beta-Glucan Consumption (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Improve the Metabolic Profie and Reduce the Atherogenic Index in Type 2 Diabetic Rats (HFD?STZ)" Nutrients 8(12) Dec 17, 2016, Quote: "It was concluded that both beta-glucan and exercise improved metabolic parameters ...Isolated use of beta-glucan decreased glucose levels in fasting, Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein and atherogenic index of plasma."
Diabetes: Cao Y, Zou S, et al., “Hypoglycemiic activity of Baker’s yeast B-glucan in obese/type 2 diabetic mice and the underlying mechanism,” Mol Nutr Food Res, PMID:27396408 DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201600032 , July 10, 2016. Quote: “B-Glucans have been shown to reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes. ...pure B-glucan (BYGlc) was a linear Beta-(1,3) glucan.. It was first found that the oral administration of pure B-glucan into T2D and DIO mice significantly down-regulated the blood glucose through suppressing SGLT-1 expression in intestinal mucosa. Meanwhile pure B-glucan promoted glycogen synthesis and inhibited fat accumulation in the liver... and depressed pro-inflammatory cytokines.”
Diabetes:: Borchani C, Fonteyn F, etc, "Structural Characterization, Technological Functionality, and Physiological Aspects of Fungal B-D-glucans: A Review," Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 56(10:1746-52, PMIC 25830657, Jul 2016: Quote: "Thus, they [(1-3)(1-6)-B-glucans] are effective in inhibiting growth of cancer cells and metastasis and preventing bacterial infection. In humans, B-glucans reduce blood cholesterol, improve glucose absorption by body cells, and so help wound healing."
Diabetes: Andrade EF, Lobato RV, et al, "Effect of beta-glucans in the control of blood glucose levels of diabetic patients: a systematic review," Nutr Hosp: 31(1):170-177, ISSN 0212-1611, 2015. "Quote: "...it was concluded that the ingestion of beta-glucans (BG) was efficient in decreasing glucose levels of diabetic patients."
Diabetes - Silva VO, Lobato RV, et al, "B-Glucans (Saccharomyces cereviseae) Reduce Glucose Levels and Attenuate Alveolar Bone Loss in Diabetic Rats with Periodontal Disease," PLoS One, Aug 20;10(8):e0134742. PMID 26291983: PMC4546386, 2015. Quote: ...oral ingestion of β-glucans isolated from Saccharomyces cereviseae ... reduced the amount of alveolar bone loss in animals with periodontal [gum] disease in both the diabetic and non-diabetic groups). β-glucans reduced blood glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in diabetic animals, both with and without periodontal disease. It was concluded that treatment with β-glucans has beneficial metabolic and periodontal effects in diabetic rats with periodontal disease.
Diabetes - Wound Healing: Gulcelik M, Sahin D, Dincer H, Alagol H, "Glucan Improves Impaired Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats," Wounds, 22(1) April 2015: Quote: "The present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of glucan on improving abdominal wall wound healing in rats with Diabetes mellitus (DM). ...These results demonstrate that glucan improves impaired wound healing in rats with Diabetes mellitus (DM)",
Diabetes - Karmuthil-Melethil S, Sofi MH, etc, "TLR2- and Dectin 1-associated innate immune response modulates T-cell response to pancreatic B-cell antigen and prevents type 1 diabetes;" Diabetes 64(4):1341-57. PMID: 25377877 PMCID:PMC4375080; Apri 2015. Quote:"These results show that zymosan [containing beta glucan] can be used as an immune regulatory adjuvant for modulating the T-cell response to pancreatic B-cell-Ag [antigen] and reversing early-stage hyperglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes." [hyperglycemia=high blood sugar glucose]
Diabetes - Karumuthil-Melethil S, Gudi R, etc. "Fungal B-glucan, a Dectin-1 ligand, promotes protection from type 1 diabetes by inducing regulatory innate immune response." J Immunol, 193(7):3308-21, doi;. PMID:25143443; PMCID:PMC4170060. Oct 1, 2014 ;Quote: " Studies using B-glucans and other Dectin 1 binding components have demonstrated the potential of these agents in activating the immune cells for cancer treatment and controlling infections. ...In this study, we show that the β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae induces the expression of immune regulatory cytokines (IL-10, TGF-β1, and IL-2) and a tolerogenic enzyme (IDO) in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells as well as spleen cells....NOD mice with low-dose β-glucan resulted in a profound delay in hyperglycemia, and this protection was associated with increase in the frequencies of Foxp3(+), LAP(+), and GARP(+) T cells. ...the innate immune response induced by low-dose B-glucan is regulatory in nature and can...modulate T cell response to B cell Ag for inducing an effective protection from Type 1 Diabetes. Note: B cell Ag (antigen) receptors mediate different types of signals between immature B cells and mature B cells
Diabetes: Francelino A, Vieira L, Vasques A, "Effect of Beta-Glucans in the Control of Blood Glucose Levels of Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review." Nutr Hosp, 1;31(n01):170-177, Jan 2014 ; Quote: ...the ingestion of BGs [beta- glucans] was efficient in decreasing glucose levels of diabetic patients."
Diabetes: Steir H, Ebbeskotte V, Gruenwald J, "Immune-modulatory effects of dietary Yeast Beta-1,3/1,6-D-glucan," Nutr J; 13;38, PMID 24774968, Apr 28, 2014. Quote: "...several human clinical trials with dietary insoluble yeast beta-glucans have been performed. The results confirm the previous findings of in vivo studies. The results of all studies taken together clearly indicate that oral intake of insoluble yeast beta-glucans is safe and has an immune strengthening effect. ,,,Further, numerous studies reported other health benefits of B-glucans, including hepatoprotective, wound healing, weight loss, antidiabetic and cholesterol lowering functions."
Diabetes -Wound Healing: Karaasian O, Kankaya Y, et al, "Case series of topical and orally administered B-glucan for the treatment of diabetic wounds: clinical study," J Cutan Med Surg, 16(3):180-6, PMID 22713441, May-Jun 2012. Quote "Chronic, nonhealing wounds, foot ulcers, and lower extremity amputations are among the most problematic complications associated with diabetes mellitus....Our observations support the view that application of glucan hastens epithelialization and wound closure, so topically and orally administered B-(1,3)-glucan therapy can help reverse some of the deficits in impaired healing diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Note: human study group
Diabetes: :Barsanti L, Passarelli, etc, "Chemistry, physico-chemistry and applications linked to biological activities of B-glucans," Nat Prod Rep 28(3):457-66, PMID: 2120441, Mar 2011. Quote: "B-Glucans have been shown to provide a remarkable range of health benefits, and are especially important against the two most common conventional causes of death in industrialized countries, i.e. cardiovascular diseases (where they promote healthy cholesterol and blood glucose levels) and cancer (where they enhance immune system functions)."
Diabetes - Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, GrBa Slobodan, Pnaikota-Krbavcic I, Vidovic L, "Biological Effects of Yeast B-Glucans," Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, , Vol 75, No.4 (149-158).2010. Quote: "Immunomodulation by B-glucan, both in vitro and in vivo, inhibits cancer cell growth and metastasis and prevents bacterial infection. In humans, dietary B-glucan lowers blood cholesterol, improves glucose utilization by body cells and also helps wound healing."
Diabetes: Chen J, Raymond K, "Beta-glucans in the treatment of diabetes and associated cardiovascular risks," Vascular Health Risk Management, 4(6): 1265-1272; PMCID:PMC2663451; Dec 2008. Quote: Management of diabetes includes: control of blood glucose level and lipids; and reduction of hypertension. Dietary intake of beta-glucans has been shown to reduce all these risk factors to benefit the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. In addition, beta-glucans also promote wound healing and alleviate ischemic heart injury."
Diabetes - Wound Healing: Berdal M, Appelbom HI, etc, "Aminated beta-1,3-D-glucan improves wound healing in diabetic db/db mice,." Wound Repair Regen 15(6):825-32 PMID 18028130, Nov-Dec 2007: Quote: "The macrophage-stimulant aminated beta-1,3-d glucan (AG) improves wound healing in db/db mice."
Diabetes: Chen J, Seviour R, "Medicinal importance of fungal beta-(1--3), (1--6)-glucans" Mycol Res 111(Pt6):635-52, PMID 17590323, Jun 2007. Quote: "The literature suggests beta-glucans are effective in treating diseases like cancer, a range of microbial infections, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. ... The major risk is vascular injury leading to heart disease, which is accelerated by increased lipid levels and hypertension. Dietary intake of beta-glucans has been shown to reduce all these risk factors to benefit the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. In addition, beta-glucans also promote wound healing and alleviate ischemic heart injury."
Diabetes / Glucose Control: Pola P, "Composition for the prevention and/or treatment of lipid metabolism disorders and allergic forms," U.S. Patent Application 20030017999, January 23, 2003. Quote:".beta-1,3-D-glucan has proved effective not only in preventing lipid metabolism disorders, but also in stimulating immune defenses, in preventing onset of tumors and in controlling serum glucose.
Diabetes: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: …people with chronic degenerative disorders such as diabetes or chronic inflammation. …
Diabetes: Kida K, Inoue T, Kaino Y, Goto Y, Ikeuchi M, Ito T, Matsuda H, Elliott RB. "An immunopotentiator of beta-1,6;1,3 D-glucan prevents diabetes and insulitis in BB rats." Dept of Pediatrics, Ehime U Sch of Med, Japan; Diabetes Res Clin Pract 17(2):75-9, PMID 1425150; Aug 1992. Quote: "The intravenous administration of 1 mg kg- 1 week- of beta-1,6;1,3 D-glucan from the age of 4 weeks decreased the cumulative incidence of diabetes from 43.3% to 6.7% and also incidence of insulitis from 82.4% to 26.3% at the age of 20 weeks. ...These data indicate that immunopotentiators [beta-1,6;1,3 D-glucan] could modulate the autoimmune mechanisms directed to pancreatic islets and inhibit the development of diabetes in BB rats."
Diabetes: Lang C.H., Dobrescu C.; “Interleukin-1 induced increases in glucose utilization are insulin mediated.” Life Sciences; 45(22):2127-34. 1989.
Diabetes: Sherwood. E.R., et al., “Enhancement of Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-2 Production by Soluble Glucan,” International Journal of Immunopharmacology.; 9:(3):261-267. 1987.
Diabetes : DiLuzio N.R. and Williams D.L., “ The Roll of Glucan in the Prevention and Modification of Microparasitic Diseases;” in Chemical Regulation of Immunology in Veterinary Medicine, Alan R. Liss, Inc.; pp. 443-456. 1984. Quote: "Mindful of the extremely high rate of atherosclerotic complications and the extraordinary requirements for antioxidants in diabetic patients, the use of beta –1,3 glucan becomes an obvious adjunct for improved lifestyle under these conditions."
Diabetes : Silva Vde O1, et al, "B-Glucans (Saccharomyces cereviseae) Reduce Glucose Levels and Attenuate Alveolar Bone Loss in Diabetic Rats with Periodontal Disease." PLoS One; 10(8):e0134742; Aug 20; 2015. Quote: "β-glucans reduced the amount of alveolar bone loss in animals with periodontal disease in both the diabetic and non-diabetic groups."
Diabetes - Methotrexate (MTX): Koc F, Erisgin Z, Tekehoglu Y, Takir S, "The effect of beta glucan on Methotrexate (MTX) induced testicular damage in rats." Biotech Histochem, 1-6, PMID 29363342, Jan 24, 2018. Quote: "Histopathology was reduced in the methotrexate (MTX) + beta glucan (BG) group compared to the MTX group. ...We found that methotrexate (MTX) causes deleterious [harmful] effects on testicular tissue and that beta glucan may be protective." Note: "histopathology" - changes in tissues caused by disease.
Diabetes - Methotrexate Toxicity: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC; “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."
Dosage: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, "Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation." Letters in Applied Microbiology," Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, (commercially MG Beta Glucan) October 2002 Quote: "...we compared the ability of orally administered microparticulate and aggregated B-glucan preparations given at 0·1 mg kg 1 daily for 14 d to enhance peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis. Note that this dosage is equivalent to a 10-mg capsule of B-glucan given orally to a 75-kg human. ... It appears that the same dose of microparticulate B-glucan is better able to enhance macrophage phagocytosis than aggregated B-glucan."
Dosage: U. of Nev School of Medicine and Nutritional Supply Corporation, "Beta Glucan Research Project Report," Press Release, Feb 1, 2000. Quote: "The preliminary dose response studies demonstrate that oral doses of micronized MG glucan equivalent to 10 mg per day in humans provided significant immunopotentiation in mice."
Dosage: U. of Nev School of Medicine and Nutritional Supply Corporation, "Beta Glucan Project Preliminary Findings," Press Release, October 8, 1999. Quote: "Moreover, studies in mice included in the extensive research project at the University of Nevada School of Medicine have demonstrated a strong immunopotentiating effect in doses [of MG Beta Glucan] that would be equivalent to a human dose of 10 milligrams."
Drug Intoxication: Beta Glucan BioActivity:Samuelson AB, Schrezenmeir j, Knutsen SH, "Effects of orally administered yeast-derived beta-glucans," Mol Nutr Food Res, 58(1):183-93, PMID 24019098, Jan 1014. Quote: "Yeast-derived beta-glucans are considered immunomodulatory compounds suggested to enhance the defense against infections and exert anticarcinogenic effects. ...In human trials, orally administered yeast derived beta-glucans (Y-BG) significantly reduced he incidence of upper respiratory tract infections ... . In animal models, oral Y-BG have reduced the incidence of bacterial infections and ...enhanced antineoplastic [chemotherapy] agents. ...Protective effects toward drug intoxication and ischemia/reperfusion injury [tissue damage when blood supply returns to tissue after period of a lack of oxygen] have also been reported.
Dyslipidemia - Cholesterol : Sima P, VAnnucci L, Vetvicka V, "B-glucans and cholesterol (Review)," Int J Mol Med, PMID 2939350, Jan 22, 2018. Quote: Hypercholesterolemia is one of primary risk factors of cardiovascular disease, together with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes. ....Due to their [beta glucans] structure they are able to interact with innate immunity receptors; however they also act as dietary fibers in the digestive tract. . ...Therefore, they [beta glucans] may be developed as a suitable therapeutic option to treat patients with dyslipidemia, as they are natural molecules that do not induce any significant side effects." Note: Dyslipidemia is an elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, or both.
Endocytosis / Particle Size / Micronization: Keiji H, Hiroshi T, "Endocytosis of Particle Formulations by Macrophages and Its Application to Clinical Treatment," Chapter 16; http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/37733/InTech-Endocytosis_of_particle_Formulations_by_Macrophages_and_its-application_to-clinical_treatmenet.pdf , 0706 2012, Quote: "Particle size is likely the primary factor that governs endocytic uptake of particles. The optimum size of particles for efficient endocytic uptake varies according to the cell type. Macrophage cells are able to ingest large particles having a diameter between 1 micron and 10 microns to eliminate invaders from outside the body. The optimal sizes of the particles for the uptake by alveolar macrophages [primarily in the lungs] range between 3 microns and 6 microns, but those by peritoneal macrophages and peripheral blood mononuclear cells are reportedly from 0.3 microns to 1.1 microns." Note: Endocytosis is the process of actively transporting molecules into the cell by engulfing such molecules with the cell membrane.
Environmental Toxins – Vetvicka V, “Effects of B-glucan on some environmental toxins: An overview.” Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub; ;158(1):1-4. PMD: 24399292. 2014 Quote: “...glucan reduces the immunosuppressive effects of a number of agents including chemo therapy and radiation. ... An overview of the effects of glucan on the mycotoxin, aflotoxin and other environmental toxins (mercury-thimerosal, depleted uranium). Glucan is effective as a natural immunomodulator and could be used as an inexpensive solution to reducing the adverse effects of some environmental toxins.”
Escherichia coli – See also Bacterial and Infections – Bacterial
Esherichia coli: Tzianabos AO, Cisneros RL; “Prophylaxis with the immunomodulator PGG glucan enhances antibiotic efficacy in rats infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria,” Ann NY Acad Sci 797: 285-287; Oct 1996.* Quote: “Results of these studies demonstrated that prophylaxis with PGG glucan in combination with antibiotics provided enhanced protection against lethal challenge with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus as compared with the use of antibiotics alone.”
Escherichia coli: Onderdonk, A.B., et al., “Anti-Infective Effect of Poly-.beta.1-6 -Glucotrisyl-.beta.1-3-Glucopyranose Glucan In Vivo,” Infec. Immun.; 60:1642-1647. 1992. Dept of Pathology, Channing Lab, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA.* Quote: “Mice challenged with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intravenous administration of 10 micrograms of poly-beta 1-6-glucotriosyl-beta 1-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per animal 4 to 6 h prior to bacterial challenge.”
Escherichia coli : Rasmussen, LT, Konopski Z, Oian P, Seljelid R; “Killing of Escherichia coli by mononuclear phagocytes and neutrophils stimulated in vitro with beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives,” Microbiol Immunol 36(11):1173-1188. Inst of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway. 1992.*
Escherichia coli : Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R, “Dynamics of blood components and peritoneal fluid during treatment of murine E. coli sepsis with beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives. I. Cells.,” Scand J Immunol 32(4): 321-331. Oct 1990.*
Escherichia coli: Williams D.L., et al; “Effect of glucan on neutrophil dynamics and immune function in Escherichia coli peritonitis.” J. Surg. Res. 44:54-61, 1988.
Escherichia coli: Almdahl SM, Seljelid R; “Semisoluble animated glucan: long-term efficacy against an intraperitoneal E. coli challenge and its effect on formation of abdominal adhesions,” Res Exp Med (Berlin) 187(5): 369-377, 1987.*
Escherichia coli: Almdahl SM, Bogwald J., Hoffman J., Sjunneskog C.; “The effect of splenectomy on Escherichia coli sepsis and its treatment with semisoluble animated glucan,”, Scand J. Gastroenterol, 22:261-267, 1987.
Escherichia coli: Seljelid R., et al., ”The protective effect of beta 1-3D-glucan-derivatized plastic beads against Escherichia coli infection in mice,” Scand J. Immuno 25(1):55-60. Jan 1987.* Quote: “Pretreatment with beta-1,3-D-glucan-drivatized plastic beads conferred strong protection against Escherichia coli infection in mice.”
Escherichia coli : Rasmussen, LT, Fandrem. Jr., and Seljelid R., “Dynamics of Blood Components and Peritoneal Fluid During Treatment of Murine E. Coli Sepis with . beta.-1,3-D-polyglucose Derivatives”; Scand. J 63:73-80 Immunol. 1985.
Escherichia coli: Williams D.L, Browder IW and DiLuzio N.R,”Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli—induced experimental peritonitis and bacteremia by glucan,” Surgery 93(3):448-454. Mar 1983.* Quote: “These data denote that the intraperitoneal administration of glucan significantly modifies the course of E. coli-induced peritonitis and bacteremia due, in part, to glucan-induced enhancement of macrophage function.”
Exercise - Strenuous: McFarlin BK, Venable AS, "Oral Supplementation with Baker's Yeast Beta Glucan is Associated with Altered Monocytes, T Cells and Cytokines following a Bout of Strenuous Exercise;" Front Physiol, 8:786, PMID 29104540, PMCID: PMC5654840, Oct 20, 2017. Quote: "
Exercise Stress: Kohut ML, Davis JM, et al: “Effect of exercise on macrophage antiviral function in the lung.” J. of Am. Cell. Of Sports Medicine; Vol. 26. S33. 1994.
Eyes-Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye): Lee HS, Kwon JY, Joo CK. “Topical Administration of B-1,3-Glucan to Modulate Allergic Conjunctivitis in a Murine Model.” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci,, 57(3), 1352-60; PMID 27002295; Mar 2016.” Quote: “BG is capable of stimulating IL-10-producing CD4 [Helper T cells]+ T cells and suppressing both the Th2 response in draining LNs and conjunctival eosinophil infiltration. We therefore demonstrated the therapeutic potential of topical BG administration for allergic conjunctivitis.” Note: LN refers to Lymph Nodes and BG to Beta Glucan.
Fibromyalgia – (Similar to Chronic Fatique) See Auto-Immune Disorders
Flatulence: Spagnuoto R, Cosco C et al, "Beta-glucan, inositol and digestive enzymes improve quality of life of patients with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome." Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci, Supply:102-107, PMID: 28724171, June 21, 2017. Quote: "We have shown that supplementation with a mixture of beta-glucan, inositol and digestive enzymes reduces bloating, flatulence and abdominal pain, improving the overall clinical condition of IBD-IBS patients."
Flu/Colds: McFarlin BK, Carpenter KC, Davidson T, “Baker’s yeast beta glucan supplementation increases salivary IgA [immunoglobulin] and decreases cold/flu symptomatic days after intense exercise,” J Diet Suppl 10(3):171-83, Sept 2013. PMID: 23927572. Quote: “BG [beta glucan] was associated with a 37% reduction in the number of cold/flu symptom days postmarathon compared to placebo (p = .026). In E2, BG was associated with a 32% increase in salivary IgA [immunoglobulin A].” Note: Immunoglobulin A is an antibody that plays a critical role in immune function in the mucous membranes.
Flu/Colds Jung K, et al, “Antiviral effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae beta-glucan to swine influenza virus by increased production of interferon-gamma and nitric oxide,” J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 51(2):72-6, Mar 2004. Quote: “Saccharomyces cerevisiae beta-glucan reduced the pulmonary lesion score and viral replication rate in SIV [swine influenza virus] -infected pigs. These findings support the potential application of beta-glucan as prophylactic/treatment agent in influenza virus infection.
Flu Vaccine Adjuvant: Wang M, Yang R, et al, “Improvement of immune response to influenza vaccine (H5N1) by sulfated yeast beta glucan,” Int J Biol Macromol, 93(Pt A) 203-207. PubMed 27339320. June 23, 2016. Quote: “The adjuvant activity of … glucan from saccharomyces cerevisiae (GSC) was researched…with inactivated H5N1 vaccine. The research showed that GSC could significantly enhance lymphocyte [white blood cell] proliferation, effectively increase the percentage of CD4*T Cells, decrease the percentage of CD8*T Cells and elevate the CD4/CD8 ratio, enhance the Hl antibody titre, and promote the production of IL-2, INF-y, IL4 and IL-6 at medium level. …GSC could be used as an effective immune adjuvant for an inactivated H5N1 vaccine. Note: GSC is beta 1,3/1,6 glucan. CD4 and CD8 are T Helper Cells. IL2-cytokine white immune cell regulator. IL4-induces differentiation to Th2 cells.
Free Radical Scavinger: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC; “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: "Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress [free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment."
Free Radical Scavenger: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend Letter; June 1996. Quote: “Free radical scavenging assays were repeated in different models, which then confirmed the antioxidant effect of beta 1,3-glucan. In light of what is presently known about the potential of free radicals to accelerate aging, cause cancer and other degenerative diseases, this particular effect of beta 1,3-glucan is especially important.”
Free Radical Scavenger: Anti-free Radical Activity of Beta(1-3)glucan Molecule. Seporga Laboratories, Sophia Antipolis, France. Research Report. 1990.
Free Radical Scavenging: Patchen M.L., D’Alesandro M.M., Brook I., Blakely W.F. McVittie T.J.; “Glucan: Mechanisms Involved in Its ‘Radioprotective’ Effect”. J Leuc Biol.; 42:95-105. 1987. Quote: “…evidence suggest that glucan can also function as an effective free radical scavenger."
Free Radicals: Sener G, Toklu H, et al; "Protective effect of beta-glucan against oxidative organ injury in a rat model of sepsis," Int Immunopharmacol:1387-96 Epub 2005/Aug 2005. Quote: "Sepsis leads to various organ damage and dysfunction. One of the underlying mechanisms is thought to be oxidative damage due to generation of free radicals. ...Elevated plasma TNF-alpha levels in septic rats [was] significantly reduced to control levels in beta-glucan treated rats. Since beta-glucan administration reversed these oxidant responses, it seems likely that beta-glucan protects against sepsis-induced oxidative organ injury."
Anti-Fungal Vaccines: Liao G, Zhou Z, Liao J, Zu L, Wu Q, Guo Z, “6-O-Branched Oligo-β-glucan-Based Antifungal Glycoconjugate Vaccines”, ACS Infect Dis ; 2(2):123-31.Feb 12 2016. PMID 27624963. Quote: “β-Glucans have a conserved β-1,3-glucan backbone with sporadic β-1,3- or β-1,6-linked short glucans as branches at the 6-O-positions, and the branches may play a critical role in their immunologic functions. … Thus, branched oligo-β-glucans were identified as functional epitopes for antifungal vaccine design and the corresponding protein conjugates as promising antifungal vaccine candidates.” Note: Epitope: the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.
Anti-Fungal Immunity: Berner VK, duPre S, Redelman D, Hunter KW, "Microparticulate B-glucan vaccine conjugates phagocytized by dendritic cells activate both naive CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro," Cellular Immunology, ( http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celimm.2015.10.007 ); U of Nevada School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology. PMID:26549577, Nov 2015. Quote: "The interaction between B-glucan and its receptors serves as an activating signal that promotes anti-fungal immunity, but fungal B-glucan also has a long history of use as an adjuvant to promote immune responses to tumors and other microorganisms...Microparticulate B-glucan (MG) was shown to exhibit adjuvant activity when conjugated to a test vaccine antigen. ....Recent studies have confirmed that B-glucan particles can be used to deliver vaccine antigen for oral immunization.
Anti-Fungal Vaccines: Clemons KV, et al; "Whole glucan particles as a vaccine against murine aspergillosis." J Med Microbiol 63(Pt 12):1750-9; PMID 25288643. Dec 2014. Quote: "Vaccination with heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKY) [beta 1,3 glucan] protects against experimental infection by pathogenic fungi of five genera. ...supporting the potential of particulate B-glucans, alone or conjugated as vaccines against aspergillosis." Note: Aspergillosis is a condition in which certain fungi infect the tissues. It most commonly affects the lungs.
Anti-Fungal Immune Response: Lee DH, Kim HW, "Innate immunity induced by fungal B-glucans via dectin-1 signaling pathway," Int J Med Mushrooms, 16(1):1-16,PMID: 24940900, 2014. Quote: "The immunomodulating activities of innate immune cells are augmented by the binding of B-glucans to dectin-1 that is expressed by macrophages or dendritic cells. Upon binding B-glucan, innate immune cells activate adaptive immune cells such as B and T lymphocytes or natural killer cells by secreting various cytokines such as interleukins (IL-4, IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α. Water-insoluble B--glucans have stronger immunostimulating activities than their water-soluble counterparts. B-glucans have antifungal activity that is similar to their anticancer activities..."
Anti-Fungal immune Response: Batbayar S, Lee DH, Kim HW, "Immunomodulation of Fungal B-Glucan in Host Defense Signaling by Dectin-1," Biomol Ther (Seoul), (5):433-45, PMID 24009832, Sep 2012. Quote: "Fungal and particulate B-glucans...can be taken up by the M cells of Peyer's patches, and interact with macrophages or dendritic cells and activate systemic immune responses to overcome the fungal infection. Dectin-1 receptor systems have been incorporated as the PRRs [pattern recognition receptor] of B-glucans in the innate immune cells of higher animal systems, which function on the front line against fungal infection, and have been exploited in cancer treatments to enhance systemic immune function."
Anti-Fungal Immune Response:: Drummond RA, Brown GD, "The Role of Dectin-1 in the host defense against fungal infections," Curr Opin in Microbiol, Vol 14,Issue 4, PP 392-399, PMID 21803640, Aug 2011. Quote: "Dectin-1 is an innate immune pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that, through its ability to bind B-glucans, is involved in the recognition of several pathogenic fungi. Dectin-1 can stimulate a variety of cellular responses ...including phagocytosis, cytokine production and the respiratory burst. ....Several advances in our understanding of Dectin-1 immunobiology have been made ....including demonstration of its ability to directly induce the development of adaptive immunity."
Anti-Fungal Immune Response/Mycobacterial Infections: Reid DM, Gow NA, Brown GD, "Pattern recognition; recent insights from Dectin-1" , Curr Opin Immunol, (1):30-7, PMID 1922162, Feb 2009. Quote: " The beta-glucan receptor Dectin-1 ...can induce ...a variety of cellular responses.... Furthermore, a broader appreciation of the cellular responses mediated by this receptor and the effects of interactions with other receptors... have greatly furthered our understanding of innate immunity and how this drives the development of adaptive immunity, particularly Th17 responses. ...Recent studies have highlighted the importance of Dectin-1 in anti-fungal immunity, in both mice and humans, and have suggested a possible involvement of this receptor in the control of mycobacterial infections." Note: Th17 is a helper T-cell form..
Antifungal Immune Response: Brown GD, Gordon S, Herre J, Willment JA, "The role of Dectin-1 in antifungal immunity," Crit Rev Immunol, 24(3):193-203, PMID 15482254, 2004. Quote: "Dectin-1 [C-type lectin-like receptor] is expressed on phagocytic cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, and mediates both the internalization and cellular responses to beta-glucan... . Dectin-1 can recognize and respond to live fungal pathogens...having a key role in the innate responses to these pathogens."
Fungal Defense: Batbayar S, Lee DH, Kim HW, "Immunomodulation of Fungal B-Glucan in Host Defense Signaling by Dectin-1," Biomol Ther: 20((5): 433-445. Pubmed 3762275. Sept 2012. Quote: "...Fungal and particulate B-glucans, despite their large size, can ...activate systemic immune responses to overcome the fungal infection.... The sampled B-glucans function...on the front line against fungal infection, and have been exploited in cancer treatments to enhance the systemic immune function. ...In mammals, B-glucans have been shown to induce diverse biological activities against fungal infections and tumors. ...As a source of soluble fiber, B-glucan may lessen the risk of heart-related diseases by lowering total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol."
Fungal Defense: Goodridge H, Reyes C, Becker C et al; "Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a 'phagocytic synapse'" Nature, Vol 472 p 471-475, April 28, 2011. * Quote: "...Dectin-1 is a pattern-recognition receptor expressed by myeloid phagocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects b-glucans in fungal cell walls and triggers direct cellular antimicrobial activity... . Despite its ability to bind both soluble and particulate B-glucan polymers, Dectin-1 signaling is only activated by particulate B-glucans. ...Studies in mice and humans have demonstrated an important role for Dectin-1 in anti-fungal defense. Dectin-1 signals activate anti-microbial phagocytosis, production of ROD [reactive oxygen species] and inflammatory innate immune responses, and influences the development of adaptive immunity..."
Fungal Diseases - Infection : Camilli G, Tabouret G, Quintin J, "The Complexity of Fungal B-Glucan in Health and Disease: Effects on the mononuclear Phagocyte System," Front Immunol, 16:9:673, PMID 29755450, Apr 16, 2018, Quote: "Study of this molecule [B-glucan] has been motivated by its importance as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern upon fungal infection as well as by its promising clinical utility as biological response modifier for the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Its immune effect is attributed to the ability to bind to different receptors expressed on the cell surface of phagocytic and cytotoxic innate immune cells, including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells." Note: A Pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) is a distinct evolutionarily conserved structure on pathogens detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), with PRRS relied upon by the innate immune system in the defense against invading microbial pathogens.
Fungal Diseases: Rondanelli M, et al, "The Biological activity of beta-glucans"; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787; Jun 2009; Quote: "...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. ...beta-1,3-glucans improve the body's immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. ...there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection]."
Fungal Diseases – Aspergillosis: Clemons KV, Danielson ME, et al, “Whole glucan particles as a vaccine against murine Aspergillosis.” J Med Microbiol, 63(Pt 12):1750-9. PMID 25288643. Dec 2014. Quote: “Vaccination with … Saccharomyces cerevisiae protects against experimental infection by pathogenic fungi of five genera. …Vaccination with whole glucan particles…proved protective against systemic aspergillosis, equivalent to that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, supporting the potential of particulate B-glucans, alone or conjugated, as vaccines against aspergillosis.” Note: Saccharomyces cerevisiae in research is particulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan.
Fungal Diseases - Candida albicans & Aspergillus fumigatus: Fidan l, Kalkanci A, Yesilyurt E, Erdal B, "In vitro effects of Candida albicans and Aspergills fumigatus on dendritic cells and the role of beta glucan in this effect." Adv Clin Exp Med 23(1):17-24, PMID: 24595999, Jan-Feb 2014. Quote: "Dendritic cells (DCs) are able to initiate and regulate the immune response to fungal infections. B-glucan stimulates the immune system, modulating cellular and humoral immunity. It (B-glucan) has a beneficial effect in fighting fungal infections. We investigated the in vitro effect of C. albicans and A. fumigatus infection on human dendritic cells (DCs). ...the addition of B-glucan to the dendritic cells stimulated by fungi promoted the activation and maturation of dendritic cells. ...B-glucan can be used as a novel stimulator to dendritic cell-based vaccination against fungal infections."
Fungal Diseases: Silva E, Azevedo CD, et al; "The use of glucan as immunostimulant in the treatment of a severe case of chromoblastomycosis" [chronic fungal skin disease]; Dept. of Patologia [Pathology], U Federal do Maranhao Maranhao, Brazil; Mycoses, April 26, 2008; Quote: "We report the case of an alternative treatment for a patient with a severe form of chromoblastomycosis [chronic fungal skin disease] that responded poorly to the traditional antifungal therapy. We hereby show, in this study, the improvement of lesions after treatment with itraconazole associated with an intra muscular administration of glucan. We observed that the regression of lesions was associated with an improvement of the cellular immune response."
Fungal Diseases: Schorey JS, Lawrence C; "The pattern recognition receptor Dectin-1: from fungi to mycobacteria." Curr Drug Targets. 9(2):123-9; Dept of Bilogical Sciences, U of Notre Dame. Feb 9, 2008. Quote: The ability of the innate immune system to quickly recognize and respond to an invading pathogen is essential for controlling the infection. For this purpose, cells of the immune system express receptors which recognize evolutionarily conserved structures expressed by various pathogens but absent from host cells. ...Dectin -1 is a type II transmembrane protein which binds beta-1,3 and beta-1,6 glucans. It [Dectin-1`] is expressed on most cells of the innate immune system and has been implicated in phagocytosis as well as killing of fungi by macrophages, neutrophils and dendritic cells."
Fungal Diseases and Pathogens: Hunter KW, Jr. Berner MD, Sura ME Alvea BN, “IFN-gamma primes macrophages for enhanced TNF-alpha expression in response to stimulatory and non-stimulatory amounts of microparticulate beta-glucan.,” Immunol Letters ; 15:98(1): 115-22. Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Applied Research Facility, MS-199, Reno, NV 89557, USA. April 2005, Quote: …"we have tested a new microparticulate form of beta-(1--> 3)-D-glucan (MG) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for its ability to induce proinflammatory cytokine secretion in mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro, and we have examined the effect of IFN-gamma. MG was rapidly phagocytized by peritoneal macrophages, and these MG-treated macrophages upregulated TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta mRNAs and secreted these proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that a synergy between IFN-gamma and beta-glucan may have evolved to lower the threshold of sensitivity of the innate immune response to fungal pathogens.” [respond faster in attacking fungal pathogens – mycotoxins]
Fungal Infection: Sainkhuu B, Lee DH, Kim HW, “Immunomodulation of Fungal B-Glucan in Host Defense Signaling by Dectin-1”, Biomol Ther (Seoul) 20(05):433-445. PMC 3762275 Sept 2012, Quote: “Fungal and particulate B-glucans... can be taken up by the M cells of Peyer’s patches, and interact with macrophages or dendritic cells and activate systemic immune responses against fungal infections. The ...β-glucans function as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Dectin-1 receptor systems have been incorporated as the PRRs [pattern recognition receptors] of β-glucans in the innate immune cells of higher animal systems, which function on the front line against fungal infection, and have been exploited in cancer treatments to enhance systemic immune function." Note: The innate immune cells in error think beta glucan is pathogenic fungus (PAMP) and respond even though beta glucan is not a pathogenic health hazard; thus creating an immune response to kill actual pathogenic fungus.
Fungal Diseases and Immunity: Brown G D, Gordon Siamon; "Fungal B-Glucans and Mammalian Immunity." Sir William Dunn Sch of Pathology, U of Oxford, UK, Immunity, Vol19, 311-316, 2003. Quote: "B-Glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many fungi which possesses immunomodulatory activities. ...The innate immune response is essential for the control of fungal infections, and there is increasing evidence that B-glucans are involved in initiating many aspects of this response. The recognition of fungal pathogens occurs through both opsonic (mainly complement) and nonopsonic mechanisms, and as conserved structural components, B-glucans...play an important role in the non-opsonic recognition of these [fungal] pathogens.
Indeed, many of the B-glucan receptors...have been shown to contribute to the recognition and phagocytosis of these organisms [fungal pathogens]. ... B-glucans, especially in particulate form, can produce proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses through the TLRs and Dectin-1 [cell receptors for B-glucan]. Many of these responses are required for the control of fungal infections, such as the production of TNF-Alpha, and is an essential early cytokine required for the control of infections with C. albicans, A. fumigatus, C. neoformans, and H capsulatum. This is also true for IL-12, another important anti-fungal cytokine... . Thus B-glucans appear to have an important role in the innate immune response to fungal pathogens and in initiating a protective adaptive response."
Fungal Diseases: Browder IW., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; "Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients." Ann. Surg.; Vol 211: 605-613. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D’Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy.* 1990. Quote: “Previous studies have demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1,3-linked glucopyranose polymer, isolated from the inner cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a potent macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases. “
Fungal Diseases: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for wound healing,” U.S. Patent 4975421, Issued Dec 4, 1990. Quote: “The soluble phosphorylated glucans are useful for promoting the wound healing process. The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against neoplastic, bacteria, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases.”
Fungal Diseases: Browder IW. Williams DL, Di Luzio NR, et al, "Modification of postoperative C-albicans sepsis by glucan immunostimulation." Int J Immunopharmacol, PubMed 6724765, 6:19-26, 1984. Quote: "...glucan increased survival and reduced renal pathology associated with C. albicans challenge in the post operative period. These observations suggest that Biologic Response Modifiers such as glucan may be effectively employed in patients who are at risk for post operative infections."
Fungal Diseases: Williams DL, Cook JA, Di Luzio NR et al, "Protective effect of glucan in experimentally induced candidiasis." J Reticuoendothel Soc, Pubmed 702473, Jun, 23(6):479-490, 1978
Fungal Infection: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: "Underivatiized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same." U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: "The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections."
Fungal Infection: DiLuzio N.R.,"Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: (p347) “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”
Fungal Pathogen Control: Brown G D, Gordon Siamon; "Fungal B-Glucans and Mammalian Immunity." Sir William Dunn Sch of Pathology, U of Oxford, UK, Immunity, Vol19, 311-316, 2003. Quote: "...the recognition of B-glucans in both [vertebrate and invertebrate] systems results in the triggering of immune responses, designed primarily for the control of fungal pathogens.
Fungal Pathogen Vaccine: Torosantucci A, et al; "A novel glyco-conjugate vaccine against fungal pathogens." J Exp Med, 202(5):597-606. PMID: 16147975 PMCID: PMC2212864. Sep 2005. Quote: ...."Anti-beta glucan antibodies bound to C. albicans hyphae and inhibited their growth in vitro....Remarkably, Lam-CRM-vaccinated mice also were protected from a lethal challenge with conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus... ." Note: LAM is laminarin, an immunogenic beta glucan
Fungicidal Activity: Pelizon AC, Kaneno R, et al; "Immunomodulatory activities associated with beta-glucan derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, Inst of Biosciences, State U of Sao Paulo Brazil. Physio Res. 54(5):557-64 2005. Quote: "B-glucan enhances fungicidal activity against P. brasiliensis...B-glucan primes for higher IL12 and TNF-alpha production....B-glucan increases NK [Natural Killer white immune cells]. ...The lower dose [20 mg/ml] was more effective to increase NK and fungicidal activity....Together, our results suggest that B-glucan derived from S. cerevisiae is able to improve Immune functions that contribute to P. brasiliensis elimination." Note: The mitosporic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, is the causative agent of a true systemic (endemic) mycosis [fungus] called paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) common in parts of South America.
Hayfever: See Allergies
Heart - Artherogenic progression: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J; ; “Effects of yeast-derived beta-glucans on blood cholesterol and macrophage functionality." U of Louisville, Dept of Pathology, Louisville, KY 40202; March 2009. Quote: "…consumption of ...yeast-derived beta-glucan indicated a dose-dependent decrease in plasma cholesterol levels...highly purified yeast-derived beta-glucans modify cholesterol levels and other indicators associated with artherogenic progression in mice.."
Heart - Vascular Injury: Chen J, Seviour R, "Medicinal importance of fungal beta-(1--3), (1--6)-glucans" Mycol Res 111(Pt6):635-52, PMID 17590323, Jun 2007. Quote: "The literature suggests beta-glucans are effective in treating diseases like cancer, a range of microbial infections, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes. ... The major risk is vascular injury leading to heart disease, which is accelerated by increased lipid levels and hypertension. Dietary intake of beta-glucans has been shown to reduce all these risk factors to benefit the treatment of diabetes and associated complications. In addition, beta-glucans also promote wound healing and alleviate ischemic heart injury."
Heart - Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting: Asrsaether E, Rydningen M, et al; "Cardioprotective effect of pretreatment with beta-glucan in coronary artery bypass grafting." Dept of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Univ Hosp of N Norway, Norway. Sand Cardiovasc J. 40(5):298-304; PubMed 17012141. Oct 2006. Quote: "...The aims of the present study were to examine the safety of pretreatment with beta-1,3/1,6-glucan in patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and to investigate whether beta-1,3/1,6-glucan pretreatment could suppress inflammatory response and protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury following CABG. ......Twenty one patients scheduled for CABG were assigned to oral beta-1,3/1,6-glucan 700 mg (Group 1) or 1 400 mg (Group 2) five consecutive days before surgery and were compared with a control group (Group 3). Blood samples were drawn preoperatively and on the first, third and fifth postoperative day for analysis of acute-phase reactants, hematology, cytokines and myocardial enzymes. CONCLUSIONS: Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan pretreatment is safe in patients undergoing CABG [Coronary artery bypass grafting] and may protect against ischemia reperfusion injury following CABG.
Heart - Coronary
Unlike the significant increases in HDL-cholesterol concentrations observed 4 wk after the end of the study for subjects receiving the yeast-derived ß-glucan, none of the 24 studies of oat products reported significant changes in HDL concentration. …Because higher HDL-cholesterol concentrations are associated with a reduced risk of developing coronary artery disease, there may be unique benefits of using the yeast-derived ß-glucan, and perhaps psyllium, rather than the oat products."
Heart Disease: Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend Letter; June 1996. Quote: “…immunosuppression is observed in people with stress-related disease such as coronary heart disease. Under such influences the number of macrophages [white immune cells] available are reduced and unable to participate in the immune cascade, which caused an even greater immunosuppression.
Beta 1,3 glucan has proven to both stimulate and activate the macrophage cells, which will counter these negative effects. …People with high risk of atherosclerosis should definitely add beta 1,3 glucan to their diet in addition to any cholesterol-reducing drugs.
Macrophage activation helps draw extra cholesterol from the blood, prevent further plaque formation on the arterial walls and phagocytes [eats] existing plaque which is recognized as a foreign body.”
Heart Disease: Bell S, Goldman VM, Bistrian BR, Arnold AH, Ostroff G, Forse RA, "Effect of beta-glucan from oats and yeast on serum lipids [cholesterol included]," Critical Rev Food Science Nutrition, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 39(2):189-202, March 1999: Quote: Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the U.S. One way to reduce the risk of developing the disease is to lower serum cholesterol levels by making dietary changes. In addition to reducing intake of total fat, saturated fat and dietary cholesterol, serum cholesterol can be further reduced by added fiber, especially from sources rich in beta-glucan. ...The yeast-derived fiber is a more concentrated source of beta-glucan than the oat product."
Heart - Atherosclerotic Complications: DiLuzio N.R. and Williams D.L., “ The Roll of Glucan in the Prevention and Modification of Microparasitic Diseases;” Immunology Medicine, Alan R. Liss, Inc.; pp. 443-456. 1984. Quote: "Mindful of the extremely high rate of atherosclerotic complications and the extraordinary requirements for antioxidants in diabetic patients, the use of beta –1,3 glucan becomes an obvious adjunct for improved lifestyle under these conditions." [Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries.]
Hemopoietic Recovery: Hofer M, Pospisil M, "Modulation of animal and human hematopoiesis by B-glucans: a review." Molecules, Sep 15;16(9): 7969-79. PubMed 21921869. 2011. Quote: "B-glucans have been shown to support murine hematopoiesis suppressed by ionizing radiation or cytotoxic anti-cancer therapy. They also enhance stem cell homing and engraftment. Note: "Hematopoiesis" is the process of creating new blood cells in the body. All blood cells start off as hematopoietic stem cells, and then specialize or differentiate into myeloid cells including erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, or eosinophils; or lymphoid cells including T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes.
hematopoietic) Recovery – Formation of Blood Cells:
Daniel E Cramer,
Hemopoietic Recovery: Popisil, et al., “Glucan Induced Hemopoietic Recovery in Gamma-Irradiated Mice”. Experientia; 38: 1232-1234. 1982.
Hemopoietic Stimulation: Patchen M.L., McVittie T.J.; Temporal Response of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells and Myeloid and Erythroid Progenitor Cells to Low-dose Glucan Treatment. Acta Hemat; 70:281-288. Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Insti, Bethesda, MD. 1983. Quote: “Clearly, there are numerous possible uses for an agent such as glucan, which is a potent stimulator of hemopoietic activity. Currently, we [U.S. Armed Services] are using glucan to enhance hemopoietic proliferation in conjunction with hemopoietic injury induced by radiation."
Hepatic Metastases : Sherwood. E.R., et al., ”Soluble Glucan and Lymphokine-activated Killer (LAK) Cells in the Therapy of Experimental Hepatic Metastases,” Chemical Abstracts; 108:179752V. 1988.
Hepatic Metastases : Williams DL, DiLuzio NR, et al, "Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease." Hepatology 5(20: 198-206. PMID: 3884476, Mar-Apr 1985. Quote: "Glucan, a particulate beta-1,3 polyglucose immunomodulator, was evaluated for its ability to modify hepatic metastases and survival in mice with reticulum cell sarcoma. ..co-incubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells."
Hepatitis B: Yu X, Zhang D, et al, "Oral administered particulate yeast-derived glucan promotes hepatitis B virus clearance in a hydrodynamic injection mouse model," PLoS ONe, 10(4):e0123559, PMCID: PMC4391928, April 9, 2015. Quote: "Our results demonstrate that particulate yeast-derived glucan (PYDG) significantly enhances Hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific Th1 immune responses, accompanied by clearance of HBV DNA, and therefore holds promise for further development of therapeutics against chronic hepatitis B."
Hepatitis B: Mochizuki S, et al, "Macrophage specific delivery of TNF-alpha siRNA complexed with B-1,3-glucan inhibits LPS-induced cytokine production in a murine acute hepatitis model," Biorg Med Chem, 21(9):2535-42, PMID: 23523387, May 1, 2013. Quote: "The complex [consisting of b-1,3-glucan and short interference RNS (siRNA)] significantly decreased the serum TNF-alpha level for the mouse model of LPS-induced acute hepatitis."
Hepatitis – Viral: Williams D.L. and DiLuzio N.R.,;“Modification of Experimental Viral Hepatitis by Glucan Induced Macrophage Activation”. in the Reticuloendothelial System and Pathogenesis of Liver Disease, Liehr and Grun, eds. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press; pp. 363-368. 1983.
Hepatitis – Viral : Williams D.L. and DiLuzio N.R.; “Glucan-Induced Modification of murine Viral Hepatitis”. Science (1980), 208: 67-69. 1980.* Quote: “Thus glucan is capable of increasing survival, inhibiting hepatic necrosis, and maintaining an activated state of phagocytic activity in mice challenged with [mouse hepatitis virus strain] MHV-A59.”
Hepatitis: “Modification of Experimental Viral Hepatitis By Glucan Induced Macrophage Activation”. Elesevier/North Holland Biomedical Press; pp. 363-368. 1980.
Herpes-simplex: Kohl, et al., “Inhibition of Human Monocyte-Macrophage and Lymphocyte Cytotoxicity to Herpes-simplex Cells by Glucan”. J. Immunol. Methods; 29: 361-368. 1979.* Quote: “Particulate, cell-associated glucan irreversibly inhibited MP antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).”
Herpes-simplex 1: Marchetti M, Pisani S, Pietropaolo V, Seganti L, Nicoletti R, Degener A, Orsi N; “Antiviral effect of a polysaccharide from Schlerotium glucanicum towards herpes simples virus type 1 infection.” Planta Med, 62:4, 301-7. Aug 1996. Quote: “The antiviral effect of scleroglucan seems to be related to its binding with membrane glycoproteins of HSV-1 particles which impedes the complex interactions of the virus with the cell plasma membrane.”
Hyperbaric oxygen and Glucan: Guzel S, Sunamak O, AS A, Celik V, Ferahman M, Nuri MM, Gazioglu E, Atukeren P, Mutlu O; “Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and Pgg-glucan on ischemic colon anastomosis.” World J Gastroenterol: 7:12(9):1421-5. Mar 2006. Quote: "… Here we analyzed the effects of hyperbaric oxygen and beta-glucan on colon anastomoses in ischemic condition. … CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen and glucan improve healing in ischemic colon anastomoses [surgical connection of two parts of the colon together] by anti-microbic, immune stimulating properties and seem to act synergistically when combined together.
Hypercholesterolemia - DuCholesterol : Sima P, VAnnucci L, Vetvicka V, "B-glucans and cholesterol (Review)," Int J Mol Med, PMID 2939350, Jan 22, 2018. Quote: Hypercholesterolemia is one of primary risk factors of cardiovascular disease, together with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes. ....Due to their [beta glucans] structure they are able to interact with innate immunity receptors; however they also act as dietary fibers in the digestive tract. . ...Therefore, they [beta glucans] may be developed as a suitable therapeutic option to treat patients with dyslipidemia, as they are natural molecules that do not induce any significant side effects." Note: Dyslipidemia is an elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, or both.
Hypercholesterolemia: Chen J, Seviour R, "Medicinal importance of fungal beta-(1--3), (1--6)-glucans" Mycol Res 111(Pt6):635-52, PMID 17590323, Jun 2007. Quote: "The literature suggests beta-glucans are effective in treating diseases like cancer, a range of microbial infections, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes."
Hyperlipemia: Donzis B. A.: Method and Composition for Treating Hyperliperdemia. U.S. Patent 4,891,220; 1990.
The Beta Glucan Research Organization is not a commercial entity. References and quotes contained herein are for information, education and research purposes only and should not be construed as express or implied representations, endorsements or warranties of The Beta Glucan Research Organization nor Nutritional Scientific Corporation, the latter having supported compilation of this non-commercial Research Index through a donation to The Beta Glucan Research Organization.
Note on various Glucan forms: Beta 1,3/1,6-D glucan is a baker's yeast-derived beta glucan with a Beta 1,6 linkage (4-8%) and the molecule skewed to the right. MG Glucan is a specially processed proprietary form of microparticulate Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan that is uniform homogeneous and non-aggregated purified Beta 1,3-D glucan that does not reaggregate after the digestive process. “PGG-glucan” is poly-[1,6]-B-D-glucopyranosyl-[1-3]-B-D-glucopyranose (b-1,6/1,3-glucan).
“Beta glucans” refers generally, but not always, to Beta- 1,3/1,6-glucan. “Scleroglucan” and “PSAT” are two Beta-1,3/1,6-polysaccharides. Beta glucans are derived primarily from yeast cell wall, various fungi, grains, and mushrooms. Beta 1,4 glucan is derived from oats and barley, minimally effective in immune potentiation and not included in this research summary of forms of Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan. Many beta glucans are marketed under various trademark names that are not unique ingredient formulations.
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